Hemorrhoids, commonly known as piles refer to a condition in which the veins around the anus or in the rectum become swollen and inflamed. Majority of people may suffer from hemorrhoids at some point in their life time. It is more common in individuals aged between 45 and 65 years and in pregnant women. External hemorrhoids occur on the skin around the anus whereas internal hemorrhoids develop in the rectum. Internal hemorrhoids tend to protrude out through the anus.
Several factors are considered to as the causes for hemorrhoids and some of them include
Internal hemorrhoids: The most common symptom is passage of bright red blood with the stools. If the hemorrhoids have prolapsed, it causes pain, discomfort and itching around the anus.
External hemorrhoids: Blood clots may form in the swollen veins causing bleeding, painful swelling or a hard lump.
Your doctor will perform physical examination which involves digital rectal exam with a gloved, lubricated finger and an anoscope. Additional diagnostic tests may be ordered to rule out other causes of bleeding.
Lifestyle modifications and dietary changes often are helpful in reducing the symptoms of hemorrhoids. A diet having high fibre content soften the stools and helps to pass them easily thereby avoids straining. Fruits, vegetables and cereals serve as a good source of dietary fibres. Fibre supplements such as methylcellulose or stool softeners can be taken. Drinking plenty of water (8-ounce glasses) and adequate exercise helps prevent constipation. Over-the-counter creams and suppositories help relieve the pain and itching. However, these are short time remedies as long-term use can cause damage to the skin.
Outpatient treatments are provided for internal hemorrhoids and include the following:
Surgical removal becomes necessary when the hemorrhoids are large enough and do not respond to conservative treatment.
Transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD) is an innovative surgical procedure for treating hemorrhoids. The procedure is a minimally invasive type of surgery and is offered as an outpatient surgery.
During the procedure, your surgeon detects the artery that supplies the hemorrhoid using a small ultrasound device called a Doppler probe. Each of these arteries is then gently sutured to block the blood supply to the hemorrhoid. This will cause the hemorrhoids to shrink over the next few days and weeks.
The THD procedure causes minimum pain and allows faster recovery. However, as with any surgical procedure, the risks associated with THD include mucous discharge, urinary retention and bleeding. But these are minor and temporary.